Children with Disability
Disability is the consequence of an impairment that may be physical, cognitive, mental, sensory, emotional, developmental, or some combination of these. A disability may be present from birth, or occur during a person’s lifetime.
The term “disability” broadly describes impairment in a person’s ability to function, caused by changes in various subsystems of the body, or to mental health. The degree of disability may range from mild to moderate, severe, or profound.A child may also have multiple disabilities. The disabilities varies according to the occurrence and that are physical disability, sensory disability (vision, hearing, olfactory and somatosensory), intellectual disability, mental health and emotional disabilities, developmental disability.
In India children with disabilities mainly comes under the purview of the ministry of social justice and empowerment. Some of the issues are dealt with by the health ministry. But no single ministry has been assigned the protection of children, which leads to varying data about occurrence of disability among children. In India 1.67% of the 0-19 population has a disability. 35.29% of all people living with disabilities are children. Other estimates say that India has 12 million children living with disabilities. Only 1% of children with disabilities have access to school and one third of most disabilities are preventable. Under-nutrition is a severe problem with children who suffer from cerebral palsy. In India 80% of children with disabilities will not survive past age forty.2
Many of the causes of disability are preventable by providing expecting mothers will better prenatal and post natal care as well as proper nutrition for infants and mothers. The main causes of disability in children are communicable disease, Infection in early childhood, early motherhood, Nutritional deficiencies, Insufficient or inaccessible health care services, inadequate sanitation and Inter-family marriages.
Children may be placed or taken into care because they have a mental, developmental, or physical disability, often referred to as “special needs.” A team of teachers, therapists, and caregivers look after the children, who may or may not go home to their parents at night or on weekends. Conditions and disabilities such as Autism, Down syndrome, epilepsy and cerebral palsy (to name a few) may require that children receive residential professional care. Specialized residential can be provided for children with conditions such as anorexia, bulimia, schizophrenia, addiction, or children who are practicing self-harm.
Sometimes a family raising a child with disability might need one parent to cut back on working hours or quit altogether to care for the child. According to research, this is usually the mother. A family dealing with reduced income and extra expenses can find it difficult to make ends meet. The financial impact of raising a child with disability will vary depending on the disability. The more severe the disability, the more it will cost you to care for your child.
All children need love, encouragement, and support, and for kids with learning disabilities, such positive reinforcement can help ensure that they emerge with a strong sense of self-worth, confidence, and the determination to keep going even when things are tough.
Always remember that the way you behave and respond to challenges has a big impact on your child. A good attitude won’t solve the problems associated with a learning disability, but it can give your child hope and confidence that things can improve and that he or she will eventually succeed.
Ref : 1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disability