Diabetic Foot Care
From generation to generation there are periodic lifestyle changes. With the changes in lifestyle (more white collar jobs) emerges health issues. One of those is the epidemic emergence of diabetes, a disease condition that affects our metabolism, which when not checked properly can result in complications like foot ulcers, liver enlargement, coronary heart disease etc. Diabetes is not a disease of medical emergency except for a few but still it becomes a life time headache for the individual who suffers with such disorder. Usually diabetic patients are of two types: 1) Hyperglycemia, or 2) Hypoglycemia.
Nowadays, even diabetic patients are recovering well with best medical and dietary management. However, those patients with diabetic wound or diabetic foot face multiple consequences and challenges in meeting their needs in day today activities. Such type of patients needs foot care.
Foot Anatomy : Anatomically we have 26 bones, 46 muscles and 29 joints. Long bones helps in movement, short bones helps in weight bearing, and ankles helps in stabilizing our body. If these bones fail to function normally, they lead to disorders called Neuropathies. Diabetic foot usually occurs as a result of these neuropathies.
The symptoms are loss of sensation, inability to feel foreign body invasion or pricks and inability to feel blisters or bleeding. Such symptoms indicate that the patient is suffering from Sensory Neuropathy. If they have deformities like Clawing Toes, Hammer Toes, Mallet Toes, High Arch, callous formation or ulcers, patients are determined to have Motor Neuropathy. Signs of dryness of skin or shinning appearance of lower limbs, infectious foot/ischemic foot, loss of hair and formation of cracks may indicate that the patient is suffering from Autonomic Neuropathy.
The following pictures show the deformities of the toes and knees when above condition is not treated.
If not treated at the acute stage then the patients might be in Danger Signals such as – Patient might feel painful situations, red or pink discoloration, raised in temperature / warmth, discharge / oozing, foul smelling of foot or bad odor, Open sore / Blister, Nausea, vomiting, fever & increased blood sugar levels.
How to avoid or manage such patients with Diabetic wound?
Check for the foot daily especially the web/digits, Check for nails/cut nails periodically, To watch for any cut/swelling, Check the foot wear, Wash feet daily with soap & water, If patient is with wound they must clean wound daily. Hence, by all such activities one can easily prevent or recover from wound. In some occasions we need to avoid things as such : Avoid walking in bare foot, Don’t leave foot dry, Don’t use hot water for washing, Don’t use knife or sharp things, Don’t warm up in fire/hot sun, Avoid shoes without socks/avoid tight socks. They must beware of silencers in bike too.
If we fail to follow all such things then as a diabetic – patients could fall in many complications like: Ulcer foot, Gangrene formation, Limited mobility of plantar, Hallux vargus, Claw toes, Hallux valgus.
As per “Integrated Foot Care Services” – hospitals practice diabetic foot care assessment as such: ABI – Ankle Brachial Index. VPT-Vibration Perception Threshold. Monofilament-Sensitometer/ Biothesiometer. Doppler study–Ultrasound of lower limbs. Podo mat or Foot Imprinter is monitoring foot care better.
Thus, if we educate patients in all such health aspects for complete follow ups / reviews lifestyle disorder can be reverted. Hence I could conclude in a single aspect such as Learn, teach and Educate as an awareness to promote good health.
“We are working as a team India Home Health Care – To provide such a holistic care”