Disability is a physical or mental condition that limits a person’s movements, senses, or activities.
Types of disabilities:
• Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorders
• Blindness or Low Vision
• Brain Injuries
• Learning Disabilities
• Medical Disabilities
• Physical Disabilities
• Psychiatric Disabilities
• Speech and Language Disabilities
A physical disability is one that affects a person’s mobility or dexterity. A person with a physical disability may need to use some sort of equipment for assistance with mobility. It also includes people who have lost limbs or who, because of the shape of their body, require slight adaptations to be made to enable them to participate fully in society.Paraplegia and Quadriplegia are what many people first identify with a physical disability. Paraplegia results from injury to the spinal cord, occurring below the neck , while quadriplegia refers to damage to the spinal cord in the neck. Varying degrees of loss of limb and other mobility may result from either condition. Other forms of physical disability, such as polio (an acquired disease), cerebral palsy (damage to brain tissue during fetal stages) and some genetic conditions can result in loss of mobility.
Types of Physical disabilities
3. Multiple sclerosis (MS)
5. Cerebral palsy
6. Absent limb/reduced limb function
Intellectual or Learning Disabilities:
People with an intellectual, learning, or cognitive disability have a reduced capacity to learn tasks or process information. A learning disability may make it difficult for a person to take in information and communicate what they know. Learning difficulties can cause difficulties in reading, writing, or mathematics. Learning disabilities and Attention Deficit Disorder together affect between 3% and 10% of the population. As students, people with these disabilities are often intelligent, creative, and productive.
A psychiatric disability (or mental illness) can develop at any age and is often not apparent to other people. Psychiatric disabilities are often the most misunderstood disabilities in the community, and peoples’ attitudes may be based on prejudice and myth (e.g. schizophrenics are potentially violent). Mental illnesses can include stress-related conditions, major depression, bipolar disorder (formally called manic-depressive illness), anxiety, and schizophrenia. Depression is the most common non-psychotic mental illness (psychosis being a disorder which features the loss of contact with reality).
Only 5% of ‘blind’ people can’t see anything. Visual impairments can be caused by a multitude of factors, including disease, accidents, and congenital illnesses. There is a difference between the needs of visually impaired individuals and blind people.
Deafness and hearing loss can be caused by a wide range of factors, including physical damage, disease during pregnancy, or exposure to very loud noises. There is a distinction between people who are deaf and those who have a hearing impairment. Those hearing up to three years of age (when language begins to develop) often have comparatively good speech and lip-reading ability.
A neurological disability is associated with damage to the nervous system that results in the loss of some physical or mental functions. A neurological disability may affect a person’s capacity to move or manipulate things or the way they act or express their feelings. The way they think and process information may also be significantly influenced. The brain and the spine are the areas of the body most closely associated with neurology. Heart attacks, serious infections, and lack of oxygen to the brain may also result in a neurological disability, called Stroke.
What is a stroke?
A stroke is caused by an interruption of the blood supply to part of the brain. The term ‘stroke’ comes from the fact that it usually happens without any warning, ‘striking’ the person from out of the blue. Although ‘stroke’ is the most correct term for the illness, you may sometimes hear it referred to as a Cerebro-vascular accident (CVA). A stroke is not a heart attack. If right side of brain gets affected, there will be paralysis on left side of the body. When left side of brain gets affected , right side of body will get affected .
The following effects are particularly common:
1. Hemiplegia means ‘half paralysis’
2. Loss of sensation on one side of the body.
3. Loss of vision.
4. Difficulties in communication.
5. Swallowing difficulties
6. Loss of intellectual or thinking ability.
7. Emotional changes.
Nurses have an important role to play as they are with you 24hours a day. The nurse will assess them and talk to their family, relative, friend or career. This is to give us a clear understanding of what their lifestyle was like before your stroke. The nurse will work closely with the other members of the team and encourage you to practice any exercises or tasks your therapists have recommended. They will also help to coordinate the advice that you have received from your therapists on how to manage your daily activities like dressing, eating and drinking and moving about. An individual plan will be drawn up that will include oral hygiene, eye care and skin care. The nurse can also provide support and education for you and your Career. Bladder and bowel control. It is quite common to find that you cannot control your bladder or bowel movements after a stroke. The nurse will assess your incontinence and form a plan just for you to help you regain your continence. Most people become fully in control again in a few weeks. Preventing complications. If you have been severely affected by the stroke, you may need:
• Special equipment such as a Hoyer lift to make sure you are moved safely
• Elastic stockings to prevent deep vein thrombosis
• A special mattress designed to prevent pressure sores
• An assessment of your seating needs
Finally, the nurse will help to plan your discharge
• Moving about should not be uncomfortable for you or the person helping you
• Weak shoulder is prone to injury if it is pulled strongly and should be supported by pillows when you are sitting and sometimes when you are lying down
• Regular exercise as recommended by the physiotherapist, is essential to maintain good movement in your joints and muscles
• The physiotherapist can give your careers advice about helping you
Reliable and professional disability support services in the home:
From technical nursing, to personal care and companionship, highly qualified and experienced IHHC staff can help with their individual needs. We care about what is best for them and their family. We understand and respect that everyone has different goals and aspirations, and we have the experience, expertise, dedication, and reliability to collaborate with allied services to support people with disability.We offer an extensive range of services extending from specialized in-home nursing to long-term support and care for people of all ages. There are many ways we can help, here are just a few:
• Nursing care including clinical treatments such as wound or catheter care, assistance with personal hygiene or help managing medications
• Non-emergency private transportation to medical appointments and for social outings. We understand the importance social interaction and participation in the life of the local community.
• Respite care, which allows you to take a break or get to your appointments or activities while the person you care for is looked after at home, in a community centre or in an aged care home
When a person requires someone else to help him with his physical or emotional needs over an extended period of time, this is long-term care. This help may be required for many of the activities or needs that healthy, active people take for granted and may include such things as:
• Using the bathroom
• Helping with incontinence
• Managing Pain
• Preventing unsafe behavior
• Preventing wandering
• Providing comfort and assurance
• Providing physical or occupational therapy
• Attending to medical needs
• Answering the phone
• Meeting doctors’ appointments
• Providing meals
• Administering medications
• Attending to personal hygiene
• Helping with personal grooming
With proper nursing care, a disable person can lead a normal life.