Organ transplantation is the surgical moving of an organ from one body to another or from a donor site to another location on the person’s own body, to replace the recipient’s damaged or absent organ. Nowadays organ transplantation is commonly done in many hospitals in over India, which needs sophisticated technology, talent and care.
Nurses plays a major role in pre and post op care of donor and recipient which is strictly under a surgeon’s super vision and follow up. These are some the types of transplantation.
- Autograft: Autografts are the transplant of tissue to the same person. This could be done with surplus tissue(tissues that can regenerate) for example skin and veins
- Allograft and allotransplatation:An allograft is a transplant of an organ or tissue between two genetically non-identical members of the same species. But due to genetic difference between the recipient and the transplanted organ the recipient’s immune system will find the organ as foreign body and try to destroy it, this will lead to transplant rejection. This can be avoided by checking the panel reactive antibody
- Isograft: It’s almost allograft in which organs or tissues are transplanted from a donor to a genetically identical recipient (such as an identical twin). In this case the chances of transplant rejection is zero
- Split transplant: This method is carried out in a deceased-donor organ, usually a liver, may be divided between two recipients, especially an adult and a child
- Domino transplant: In this method two organs are replaced, it is a technically easier operation with a higher rate of success to replace both the heart and lungs of the recipient with those of the donor. As the recipient’s original heart is usually healthy, it can then be transplanted into a second recipient in need of a heart
- Xenotransplantation: In this methodthe transplantation is done betweentwo different species
Nursing care for organ transplantation
- Prevent risk for infection: Infections can be prevented by practicing hygienic techniques and healthy environment
- Maintain fluid balance:Fluid balance is maintained by accurate amount of intake and monitoring output
- Administration of medication:Taking the right one on right time, right route, right dose
- Strict dietary plan:Diet should be controlled as per the dieticians order
- Follow up and evaluation:Follow ups must be done on the right time with the doctors
So far India Home Health Care has provided care for a significant number of organ transplant patients and helped them in their needy time. I wish to share one of myexperiences with Mr. X Who had under gone liver translation recently. He was suffering from cirrhosis of liver and doctors advised and carry out liver transplantation. After five days he got discharged and came home and was under our nursing care 24/7 for 33 days and now enjoying a new life without any health issue.